Table 1

Hypothetical Counts of Death and Total Population by Social Class by Areas

Counts of Death out of total population
Low Social Class
High Social Class
9 out of 50
2 out of 50
5 out of 90
5 out of 95
10 out of 80
0 out of 50
20 out of 90
0 out of 0

Table 1 provides hypothetical data of deaths for two social groups in a format that is typical for spatially aggregated data.

Thus, in Area 1, 9 out of 50 in the low social class category died in a particular year; in Area 2, 5 out of 95 in the high social class category died, and so on. In this table, individuals are grouped as ‘types’ (low and high social class) and are represented as ‘cells’ of a table that contain counts of death for each social group in every area. Importantly, by using the compact, aggregated form of Table 1, data agencies can preserve individual confidentiality.

Figure 11

Figure depicting that individuals nest within areas producing a two-level hierarchical data structure as described in the text.

Subramanian, S. V., Duncan, C., et al. (2001) Multilevel perspectives on modeling census data. Environment and Planning A 33(3): 399-417.