Ethical Challenges

11. Resources

Further Reading

Grady, C. (2002). Ethical principals of research.  In J. I. Gallin & F. P. Ognibene (Eds.), Principles and Practice of Clinical Research (pp. 15-27). San Diego, CA: Academic Press.

Emanuel, E., Wendler, D., & Grady, C. (2000). What makes clinical research ethical? Journal of the American Medical Association, 283(20), 2701-11.
This article establishes a framework for assessing whether clinical research is ethical.

Amdur. R. & Bankert, E. A. (2011). Institutional Review Board member handbook. Sudbury, MA: Jones and Bartlett.
This print edition is available from the publisher or from

Levine, C. (2009). Taking sides: Clashing views on controversial bioethical issues. Guilford, CT: McGraw-Hill/Dushkin.

Fanelli, D. (2009). How many scientists fabricate and falsify research? A systematic review and meta-analysis of survey data. PLoS ONE 4(5), e5738.

Steneck, N. H. (2006). Fostering integrity in research: Definitions, current knowledge, and future directions. Science and Engineering Ethics, 12, 53-74.

Titus, S. L., Wells, J. A., & Rhoades, L. J. (2008). Repairing research integrity. Nature, 453, 980-982.

Selected Web Resources

Resnick, D. B. What is Ethics in Research and Why is it Important?
This article is an easy introduction to research ethics.

The Office for Human Research Protections site includes national and international guidelines and regulations, educational written materials and videos, archived resources, and notices of educational programs.

The National Institutes of Health site Bioethics Resources on the Web includes links to federal and non-federal resources and links to selected topics. The site also includes links to ethics tutorials, case studies and ethics-related organizations.

The Office of Research Integrity site includes federal policies and regulagtions, publications, educational material including a video on avoiding misconduct. It also includes information on handling suspected misconduct.

IRB handbooks and guidelines: Google IRB Handbook or IRB Guidelines or go to an institution’s home page and search within it for Protection of Human Subjects or IRB.

Federal Regulations