Multilevel Modeling

19. References

Aitkin, M., Anderson, D., et al. (1981) Statistical modelling of data on teaching styles (with discussion). Journal of the Royal Statistical Society A 144: 148-161.

Anderson, N. B. (1999) Solving the puzzle of socioeconomic status and health: The need for integrated, multilevel, interdisciplinary research. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences 896: 302-312.

Bennett, N. (1976) Teaching styles and pupil progress. London: Open Books.

Berkman L.F., Kawachi I. (2000) Social epidemiology. New York: Oxford University Press. xxii, 391.

Blakely, T., Salmond, C., et al. (2000) Anonymous linkage of New Zealand mortality and Census data. Australian and New Zealand Journal of Public Health 24: 92-95.

Blakely T., Subramanian, S.V. (2006) Multilevel studies. In: J.M. Oakes, J. S. Kaufman, (Eds). Methods in social epidemiology. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass. 316-340.

Blakely, T. A., Woodward, A. J. (2000) Ecological effects in multilevel studies. Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health 54: 367-374.

Bryk, A. S., Raudenbush, S. W. (1992) Hierarchical linear models: Applications and data analysis methods. Newbury Park, UK: Sage Publications.

Cummins, S., Macintyre, S., et al. (2005) Measuring neighbourhood social and material context: Generation and interpretation of ecological data from routine and non-routine sources. Health & Place 11(3): 249-260.

Davey Smith, G., Hart, C. et al. (1997) Lifetime socioeconomic position and mortality: prospective observational epidemiology. British Medical Journal 314: 547-552.

Diez Roux, A. V. (2001) Investigating neighborhood and area effects on health. American Journal of Public Health 91(11): 1783-9.

Diez Roux, A. V. (2002) A glossary for multilevel analysis. Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health 56(8): 588-594.

Draper, D. (1995) Inference and hierarchical modeling in the social sciences. Journal of Educational and Behavioral Statistics 20: 115-147.

Duncan G., Raudenbush, S. (1999) Assessing the effects of context in studies of child and youth development. Educational Psychologist 34: 29-41.

Duncan, C., Jones, K., et al. (1993) Do places matter? A multilevel analysis of regional variations in health-related behaviour in Britain. Social Science and Medicine 37(6): 725-733.

Fielding, A. (2004) The role of the Hausman test and whether higher level effects should be treated as random or fixed. Multilevel Modeling Newsletter 16(2): 3-9.

Gilks, W., Richardson, S., et al. (1996) Markov Chain Monte Carlo in practice. London: Chapman and Hill.

Goldstein, H. (1994) Multilevel cross-classified models. Sociological methods and research 22: 364-375.

Goldstein, H. (1995) Multilevel statistical models. London: Edward Arnold.

Goldstein, H. (2003) Multilevel statistical models. London: Edward Arnold.

Goldstein, H., Browne, W. J., et al. (2002) Partitioning variation in multilevel models. Understanding Statistics 1: 223-232.

Goldstein, H., Rasbash, J. (1996) Improved approximations for multilevel models with binary responses. Journal of the Royal Statistical Society A 159: 505-513.

Goldstein, H., Spiegelhalter, D. (1996) League tables and their limitations: Statistical issues in comparisons of institutional performance (with discussion). Journal of the Royal Statistical Society Series A 159: 385-443.

Heagerty, P., Zeger, S. (2000) Marginalized multilevel models and likelihood inference (with discussion). Statistical Science 15: 1-26.

Hox, J. (2002) Multilevel analysis: Techniques and applications. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.

Jones, K., Bullen, N. (1994) Contextual models of urban house prices: A comparison of fixed- and random-coefficient models developed by expansion. Economic Geography 70: 252-272.

Jones, K., Gould, M. I., et al. (1998) Multiple contexts as cross-classified models: The labor vote in the British general elections of 1992. Geographical Analysis 30: 65-93.

Jones, K., Moon, G. (1987) Health, disease and society. London: Routledge.

Kawachi, I., Berkman, L. (Eds.). (2003) Neighborhoods and health. New York: Oxford Press.

Kawachi, I., Subramanian, S. V. (2006) Measuring and modeling the social and geographic context of trauma: A multilevel modeling approach. Journal of Traumatic Stress 19(2): 195-203.

King, G. (1997) A solution to the ecological inference problem: Reconstructing individual behavior from aggregate data. Princeton: Princeton University Press.

Kish, L. (1965) Survey sampling. New York: John Wiley.

Kreft, I., de Leeuw, J. (1998) Introducing multilevel models. London: Sage Publications.

Kreft, I. G. G. (1996) Are multilevel techniques necessary? An overview including simulation studies. Los Angeles: Calfornia State University.

Langford, I. H., Bentham, G., et al. (1998) Multilevel modelling of geographically aggregated health data: A case study on malignant melanoma mortality and UV exposure in the European Community. Statistics in Medicine(17): 41-57.

Leyland, A.H. (2005) Socioeconomic gradients in the prevalence of cardiovascular disease in Scotland: the roles of composition and context. Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health. 59 (9):799-803.

Leyland, A. H., Goldstein, H. (Eds.). (2001) Multilevel modelling of health statistics. Wiley Series in Probability and Statistics. Chichester: John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

Link B. G., Phelan, J. (1995) Social conditions as fundamental causes of disease. J Health Soc Behav Spec No: 80-94.

Longford, N. (1993) Random coefficient models. Oxford, UK: Clarendon Press.

Lynch, J., Davey Smith, G., et al. (2004) Is income inequality a determinant of population health? Part 1. A systematic review. Milbank Q 82(1): 5-99.

Macintyre, S. (2000) The social patterning of health: Bringing the social context back in. Medical Sociology Newsletter 26: 14-19.

Macintyre, S., Ellaway, A. (2000) Ecological approaches: Rediscovering the role of physical and social environment. In: L. F. Berkman and I. Kawachi (Eds). Social Epidemiology. New York: Oxford Press. 332-348.

Macintyre, S., Ellaway, A. (2003) Neighbourhoods and health: An overview. In: I. Kawachi and L. Berkman (Eds.). Neighborhoods and Health. New York: Oxford Press. 20-42.

Macintyre, S., Ellaway, A., et al. (2002) Place effects on health: How can we conceptualise, operationalise and meaure them? Social Science and Medicine 55: 125-139.

Macintyre, S., Maciver, S. et al. (1993) Area, class and health: Should we be focusing on places or people? J Social Policy 22(2): 213-234.

Marshall, J., Hastrup, J. (1996) Mismeasurement and the resonance of strong confounders: Uncorrelated errors. American Journal of Epidemiology 143(10): 1069-1078.

McKinlay, J. B., Marceau, L. D. (2000) To boldly go. American Journal of Public Health 90(1): 25-33.

Merlo, J. (2003) Multilevel analytical approaches in social epidemiology: Measures of health variation compared with traditional measures of association. Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health 57: 550-552.

Moon, G., Subramanian, S. V., et al. (2005) Area-based studies and the evaluation of multilevel influences on health outcomes. In: A. Bowling and S. Ebrahim (Eds.). Handbook of Health Research Methods: Investigation, Measurement and Analysis. Berkshire, UK: Open University Press. 266-292.

Morris, C. (1995) Hierarchical models for educational data: An overview. Journal of Educational and Behavioral Statistics 20: 190-199.

Oakes, M. (2004) The (mis)estimation of neighborhood effects: Causal inference for a practicable social epidemiology. Social Science and Medicine 58: 1929-1952.

Pickett, K., Pearl, M. (2001) Multilevel analyses of neighbourhood socioeconomic context and health outcomes: A critical review. Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health 55: 11-122.

Rasbash, J., Goldstein, H. (1994) Efficient analysis of mixed hierarchical and cross-classified random structures using a multilevel model. Journal of Educational and Behavioural Statistics 19(4): 337-350.

Raudenbush, S. W. (2003) The quantitative assessment of neighborhood social environment. In: I. Kawachi and L. F. Berkman (Eds.). Neighborhoods and health. New York: Oxford University Press.

Rice, N., Jones, A., Goldstein, H. (1998) Multilevel models where the random effects are correlated with the fixed predictors: A conditioned iterative generalised least squares estimator (CIGLS). Multilevel Modelling Newsletter 10: 10-14.

Snijders, T. A. B. (2001) Sampling. In: A. H. Leyland and H. Goldstein (Eds.). Multilevel modelling of health statistics. Chichester: John Wiley. 159-174.

Snijders, T. A. B., Bosker, R. J. (1993) Standard errors and sample sizes for two-level research. Journal of Educational Statistics 18: 237-259.

Spencer, N. (1998) Consistent parameter estimation for lagged multilevel models. Hertfordshire: University of Hertfordshire Business School. UHBS 19 UHBS 19. 4-7 p.

Spencer, N., Fielding, A. (2000) An instrumental variable consistent estimation procedure to overcome the problem of endogenous variables in multilevel models. Multilevel Modelling Newsletter 12: 4-7.

Subramanian, S. (2004) Multilevel methods, theory and analysis. In: N. Anderson (Ed.). Encyclopedia on Health and Behavior. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications. 602-608.

Subramanian, S., Jones, K., et al. (2003) Multilevel methods for public health research. In: I. Kawachi and L. Berkman (Eds.). Neighborhoods and Health. New York: Oxford Press. 65-111.

Subramanian, S. V. (2004) The relevance of multilevel statistical methods for identifying causal neighborhood effects. Social Science & Medicine 58(10): 1961-1967.

Subramanian, S. V., Duncan, C., et al. (2001) Multilevel perspectives on modeling census data. Environment and Planning A 33(3): 399-417.

Subramanian, S. V., Kawachi, I. (2004) Income inequality and health: What have we learned so far? Epidemiol Reviews 26: 78-91.

Susser, M. (1998) Does risk-factor epidemiology put epidemiology at risk? Peering into the future. Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health 52: 608-611.

Susser, M., Susser, E. (1996a) Choosing a future of epidemiology: I. eras and paradigms. American Journal of Public Health 86: 668-673.

Susser, M., Susser, E. (1996b) Choosing a future of epidemiology: II. from black box to Chinese boxes and eco-epidemiology. American Journal of Public Health 86: 674-677.

Wilkinson, R., Marmot, M., (Eds.). (2003) Social determinants of health: The solid facts, second edition. Copenhagen: World Health Organization Regional Office for Europe.