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Objective Measurement of Subjective Phenomena

1. Learning Objectives

After reviewing this chapter readers should be able to:

  • Define and understand the basic elements of measuring behavioral outcomes.
  • Identify different types of behavioral outcomes and the measurement procedures for assessing them.
  • List and give examples of methods of constructing measures, along with the problems and biases that may arise when assessing constructs.
  • Identify and define different types of reliability, distinguishing among types of reliability and their unique insights into the assessment of outcomes.
  • Define traditional forms of validity – content, criterion-related, and construct validity – and understand how convergent and discriminant validity offers clearer information regarding validity.