Design Decisions in Research

5. Current and Unresolved Issues

Exercise 3

The goal of this exercise is to identify the ethical violation(s) and ethical principle(s) violated in several examples of research.

Instructions:
Listed below are several examples of research cited for ethical violations.  Choose the specific violation(s) and the ethical principle(s) violated in that example.

Examples of Research Cited for Ethical Violations:
A.  Tuskegee, 1932-1972
B.  New Zealand, 1966-1988
C.  Jewish Chronic Disease Hospital, 1963
D.  Guatemala, 1946-1948

Specific Violations:
Lack of informed consent
Failure to minimize risks and maximize benefits
Withholding of treatment
Lack of proper review by an ethics committee
Lack of protections for a vulnerable population

Principles Violated:
Respect for persons
Beneficence

Answers:
A.  Tuskegee, 1932-1972
Specific Violations:
Lack of informed consent
Failure to minimize risks and maximize benefits
Withholding of treatment
Lack of protections for a vulnerable population
Principles Violated:
Respect for persons
Beneficence

B.  New Zealand, 1966-1988
Specific Violations:
Lack of informed consent
Withholding of treatment
Lack of proper review by an ethics committee
Lack of protections for a vulnerable population
Principles Violated:
Respect for persons
Beneficence

C.  Jewish Chronic Disease Hospital, 1963
Specific Violations:
Lack of informed consent
Lack of proper review by an ethics committee
Lack of protections for a vulnerable population
Principles Violated:
Respect for persons

D.  Guatemala, 1946-1948
Specific Violations:
Lack of informed consent
Lack of protections for a vulnerable population
Principles Violated:
Beneficence