3. Reasons to Measure PROs
For each surrogate in the following table, identify the patient-important outcomes (PIOs) with which there is a putative causal link. When you make a correct match a summary of results of randomized trials will appear. These results disappointed investigators by showing that their understanding of biology may be terribly flawed: compelling biological rationale failed to predict impact on patient-important outcomes, sometimes disastrously.
Drag the following outcomes into the PIO column below which you think was the trial result. A PIO may apply to more than one surrogate.
The outcomes are: QOL impairment, vertebral and longbone fractures; QOL impairment, coronary events; Death; Dyspnea and Fatigue; Renal Failure
The answers are in the last column of the table.
|Intervention||Surrogate Endpoint||Patient-Important Outcomes (Answers)|
|Milrinone, amrinone, ibopamine, epoprotonol, vesnarinone for patients with heart failure||Measures of cardiac function||Death
|Hormone replacement therapy for post-menopausal women||High-Density Lipoprotein and ultrasound-measured vessel wall thickening||QOL impairment, coronary events
|Fluoride for women with osteoporosis||Bone density||QOL impairment, vertebral and longbone fractures|
|Encainide and flecainide for cardiac arrhythmias||Arrhythmia suppression||Death|
|Rosiglitazone for diabetes||Serum glucose or Hemoglobin A1C||Renal Failure|
|Torcetrapib for prevention of coronary events||HDL||QOL impairment, coronary events|
|Nitric oxide for critically ill patients with acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS)||Oxygenation||Death|
|Theophylline for asthma||Spirometric measures of lung function||Dyspnea and Fatigue|