Multilevel Modeling

3. Multilevel Framework

Exercise 1

In this exercise, user is asked to determine which study type is required to answer the following question:

We wish to know whether the neighborhood level differences in body mass index (BMI) is due to clustering of individual characteristics or is due to characteristics associated with neighborhoods.

Click on one of the four table cells that constitute the appropriate typology for this study.



Exposure


t
T
Outcome
y
{y, t}
Traditional risk factor study
{y, T}
Contextual study
Y
{Y, t}(A)
{Y, T}
Ecological study
Note: (A) This type of study is impossible to specify as it stands. Practically speaking, it will either take the form of {Y, T}, i.e., ecological study, where T will now simply be central tendency of t. Or, if dis-aggregation of Y is possible, so that we can observe y, then it will be equivalent to {y, t}.


Answer: Contextual study type {y,T} would be required because in order to answer the above the researchers need information on individuals’ BMI along with their membership to the neighborhoods in which they reside and characteristics measured at the individual and neighborhood level.